Model Structure

by Amna Ansari
As we are experimenting ways in which to visualize and represent larger ideas about cities as a blueprint or framework, I began to look at historical diagrams and model representations for larger concepts, and focused the research around ideas about the universe.  Some of these are simple line diagrams for concepts and beliefs about the universe that were held for centuries, and others are tested and accepted concepts that translate workings of the universe.
One that came to mind was the mandala, a buddhist circular model representing the structure of life starting from the center.  A method of drawing or model building that is also seen as a form of meditation.  This method dates back as far as 1st century B.C.E.
Introduced in 100 AD by Claudius Ptolemy, this model places the Earth at the center of the universe. Planets circulate on respective smaller spheres called epicycle, and these circulate on a larger sphere called deferent, while the stars circulate on the most outer sphere. This belief of the universe was held for approximately 1,300 years.
In 1543 Copernicus introduced the idea of a Heliocentric model placing the sun at the center of the universe, in opposition to the Ptolemaic model, a belief held for centuries which placed the Earth at the center of the universe. In this model the planets revolve around the sun.
In 1851 Leon Foucault built a representational model to demonstrate the rotation of the Earth, using a pendulum that tracks the equators position relative to Earth.  To depict the rotation, the plane of oscillation of the pendulum revolves an X amount of degrees (depending on the location’s latitude) in one full day.  Here a concept is rearticulated through the use of other objects and methods to depict a current and realized concept.  The viewer is reminded of their everyday position in space.

Reference: The Marvels and Mysteries of Science published in 1941.

During this research I was reminded of artist Edward Tufte whose work I saw at MIT during a lecture course, when he was explaining his markings on a beautiful plaque that communicates to other civilizations and extraterrestrial life of our civilization.   Looking further into his work, he is inspired by Feynman Diagrams, which are pictorial representations of the workings of the universe.  These diagrams depict mathematical expressions that govern the behavior of subatomic particles.  Feynman introduced the diagrams in 1948 as a way to understand calculations for QED, quantum electrodynamics.

Reference: America Scientist, Volume 93, Pg. 157
HUBBLE DIAGRAM: Expanding Universe to Big Bang
With the help of Edwin Hubble documenting and plotting distances and velocities of stars, in the 1920s scientists realized that the Universe is not static but rather expanding, which led to further inquiries about the beginnings of the universe, known as the Big Bang. Scientists realized that there may be no center to the universe or cannot yet be determined.   And recently in 1998 it was discovered that the universe is actually expanding at an accelerated rate.  However a full understanding of the universe is still unraveling, as to whether it is finite, infinite, or one of many, and what the fate of the universe will be.

Chassis and Bodies of Power part 1

by Marcus Martinez

Since the early 19th century, inventors and ‘tinkerers’ alike have reworked the arrangement of human power, ergonomics and mechanics combined in the bicycle. The adoption of the bicycle influenced new industries of pneumatic tires, ball bearings, and chain driven sprockets that impacted many fields of knowledge to advance steam power, combustion engines, electric motors, and even flight. As materials evolved from wood, hollow tubes, to carbon fiber so followed the mechanical dynamics and new range of possible speeds, use, and configurations, many of which will be explored in future posts.

The examples in this entry follow a conceptual transformation that seem to revisit three themes: structure as envelope, a mechanical extension, and hybrids that coordinate with the human body’s range in motion for optimal control input or power output, and in some cases consume or reshape the body as to complete the frame to manage weight and aerodynamics.


The ‘Highwheel’ bikes from the 1870’s, sometimes referred as a ‘Penny Farthing’ because of large and small wheel configuration resembling British currency of a large and small coins: the penny and the farthing. Today, bikes are sized calculating your height and leg length;  ‘Highwheels’ however, were sized for the largest wheel your leg reach could accommodate. The larger wheel and its long spokes offered a more comfortable ride, which was a response to the ‘bone shaker’ bicycles which were wood frame and iron wheels that shake the spare change out of any rider on the mostly cobble stone roads. The elevated ride also made for a high center of gravity leading to hard falls, and mounting challenges.

Royal Salvo, Beamish Museum Photostream Flickr

Royal Salvo, Beamish Museum Photostream Flickr

Trikes like the ‘Royal Salvo’ in 1877 responded to the challenges presented by the Penny Farthing. The James Starley’s Royal Salvo positions the rider in a lower to the ground and between two large wheels, could more gracefully ‘step into’ position. Features that became later associated with automobiles like the differential gear, which and rack and pinion steering opened up the machine to a wider audiences including its namesake: Queen Victoria.


The mechanical complexity of the Royal Salvo was a new paradigm of the machine as human interface: the body placed inside the machine, at the center of gravity, chain driven pedals, and steering and differential gears.

Starley’s application of innovative gearing is rooted in his many inventions, including the hand operated ‘Europa’ sewing machine (above). Sewing, mostly done by hand through the mid 1800’s, the sewing machine was one of the first labor saving devices made for the home use. The impact of this machine can be measured by both the interchangeable assembly that enabled mass production and simplified repair. The cultural/consumer impact of these machines produced affordable lines of ready-made affordable clothing.



Countless inventors worked toward the automobile using the framework of the bicycle as their host structure. Gottlieb Daimler’s 1885 contribution of ‘Reitwagen’ or ‘Riding Car’, similar to the rider in the frame, nested the motor with the wooden bicycle chassis. While many argue that Diamler’s ‘Riding Car’ was more motorcycle than automobile, it carried a compounding effect toward the automobile we know today. A year later in 1886, Carl Benz patented the ‘Motor Car’ where Benz concluded that new methods of propulsion also necessitated an entirely new chassis.



Back to bicycles…kind of…bicycle racing is a fascinating intersection of human, machine dynamics, and aerodynamics. The first 1200 meter race in 1868 in Parc de Saint Cloud, Paris, was won on iron wheels connected on a wood frame. In racing, the advantage is achieved in managing drag to maximize pedaling effort. The emphasis on the managing the body’s drag has spurred innovations like the ‘Aerobars’ on triathlon or time-trial bikes to keep the rider in their ‘tucked’ position. These bars are modified to the spec of the user for their optimal position. Like tuning the aerodynamics of a vehicle design, or flaps and rudders of an airplane; bars, gloves, and helmets like the Giro ‘advantage’ and Bell (shown above) are wind tunnel tested and micro-tuning on the helmets controlling the fore and aft position of the helmet on the head for peak performance. Some riders will even glue their numbers to their jersey to minimize drag.


So, how far have these interest in aerodynamics gone? In the late 1970’s, American aeronautical engineer Dr. Paul B. MacCready’s AeroVironment co opted the function of a geared frame to direct pedal power instead of two wheels to a two bladed propeller to create the first human powered flight beginning with the Gossamer Condor in 1977, and shortly after, the Gossamer Albatross, which crossed the English Channel in 1979. The rider is less confined by their position and shape within the mylar enclosure which was centrally oriented in the 97.7 foot wingspan, totalling an empty weight of 77lbs by virtue of a lightweight body constructed of carbon fiber, polystyrene, and mylar.


Finally, toward a more virtual civilization of Tron (1982, 2010’s Tron Legacy, and the upcoming sequel) are the memorable ‘Light Cycles’. These too have had an interesting evolution across the movie franchise. In the first generation light cycle, the rider would be involuntarily forced into position and covered by canopy. The ‘Tron Legacy’ light cycle gets interesting iteration in the boarding sequence. The rider with a ‘baton’ in hand would run and leap with the baton held with both hands like a bike handle, as the bike materializes (digitally?). The body of the cycle is imposed over the spine of the rider at a minimal tolerance as to ‘pin down’ the rider. The body panel coordinates with a helmet closely resembling the Giro ‘advantage’ helmet, together the two features merge as one aerodynamic mass.

There’s so much more to talk about, and this entry is only touching on far reaching narratives in engineering, innovation, and social mechanisms. This is part of a multiple entry series which will later include my own attempts in this broad field of the future and mobility.

Structuring Infrastructure Part I

by Amna Ansari

This post will continuously be updated with new findings and observations.

antonio sant-elia futurist

Citta Nuova
Italian Architect Antonio Sant’Elia was part of the Futurist Movement in 1912s, during which time he created some fascinating drawings of a possible future with monolithic buildings depicting a highly industrialized society.  In some of his drawings one can note a future concept of a multi-level transportation infrastructure and its integration with buildings.


How you may live and travel in the city of 1950.
“Future city streets, says Mr. Corbett, will be in four levels: The top level for pedestrians; the next lower level for slow motor traffic; the next for fast motor traffic, and the lowest for electric trains. Great blocks of terraced skyscrapers half a mile high will house offices, schools, homes, and playgrounds in successive levels, while the roofs will be airplane landing fields, according to the architect’s plan.”

Architect Harvey W. Corbett believed in planning for a future integrating freeways and landing strips with buildings for growing dense city centers, and did not believe in dencentralization of large cities.

Popular Science August 1925

minority-report-maglev-1340241758Minority Report 
A 2002 film based on a Philip K. Dick short story.  The movie portrays D.C. and the future as absolutely monitored by police with full scale (spanning time) public surveillance that one could assume supported by commercialism (i.e. biotagged personalized shopping identities).  Thus it naturally make sense why traffic infrastructure is imagined as magnetic tracks with vehicles that can be remotely controlled.  What is interesting here is the ability of the vehicles to switch directions and orientation and the infrastructure to accommodate these dual modes while integrating with city buildings.  The ground is dedicated to regular type vehicles.

Taking the opportunity to give a nod to John Underkoffler of MIT and others at MIT Media Lab who envisioned the interfaces of the computer systems for the PreCrime unit.  You can find his TED lecture here:


Total Recall 2012 
A 2012 film based on yet another Philip K. Dick short story We Can Remember It For You Wholesale.  Having recently watched it is what inspired looking into and documenting previous infrastructure theories.  In Total Recall magnetic tracks allow vehicles to utilize both sides of the infrastructure, either being held from above or below.  This multi-level, and efficient, use of infrastructure could have the potential of dedicating one side to passenger vehicles and the other for emergency and delivery vehicles, or whatever is deemed appropriate.  Unlike other imagined futures, the freeways or traffic support systems, run in between or above buildings.  Similar to Minority Report, the ground is dedicated to regular type vehicles.